BIRD’S EYE VIEW
21st Century Decline of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act
This year the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (“MBTA”, 16 U.S.C. 703-712) celebrates one century of international coordination on bird conservation with Canada. The MBTA is a US public law implementing a US-UK treaty negotiated by the United Kingdom on behalf of Canada. Later, Mexico, Japan and the Soviet Union (now as its successor state, the Russian Federation) joined the treaty, making US efforts multilateral.
At the turn of the nineteenth century, several US bird species became extinct — due to the extensive commercial trade in birds, for meat and feathers. Labrador Ducks, Great Auks, Passenger Pigeons, Carolina Parakeets, and Heath Hens reached extinction. The initial treaty sought to protect other threatened migratory birds from predatory hunting and poaching. Currently the MBTA covers the following migratory birds:
- Columbidae (pigeons, doves)
- Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks)
- Grecidae (cranes)
- Rathidae (rails, gallinules, coots)
- Charadriidae (plovers, lapwings)
- Haematopodidae (oystercatchers)
- Recirvirostridae (stilts, avocets)
- Scolopacidae (sandpipers, waders, curlews, shorebirds)
Extinct Birds Slideshow
According to the US Field and Wildlife Service: “The MBTA provides that it is unlawful to pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill, possess, sell, purchase, barter, import, export, or transport any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg or any such bird, unless authorized under a permit issued by the Secretary of the Interior.”
By the 1970s, the US Department of Justice began actively seeking compliance from oil, timber, gas, electrical, mining and chemical companies, issuing notices of violations when thousands of bird deaths were deemed “incidental” but where an alteration to business management and infrastructure could better protect the birds.
By the turn of the twentieth century, the tide shifted again in the “incidental deaths” cases. In 2001, in Skokie, IL v. US Army Corps of Eng’rs, 531 US 159 (2001), the city of Skokie wanted to fill abandoned, empty rock quarries with water and use them for solid waste disposal; the US Army Corps of Engineers objected on the basis of incidental deaths to birds covered by the MBTA. The Supreme Court decided in favor of Skokie.
More recently, the Department of Interior issued a legal opinion supporting a further change in Administration policy– as of late December 2017, the Government will no longer issue notices of violations for such “incidental deaths”.
This is a major change and short-sighted. By way of example, the bee population recently dropped precipitously damaging agricultural yields worldwide. We had never foreseen this; we still don’t entirely understand the reasons for the bee’s decline. Similarly, by permitting migratory bird decline before understanding potential impacts on our world ecosystems, we risk too much in the name of short-run corporate profit-seeking.
BIRD’S EYE VIEW:
FEBRUARY 2: WORLD WETLANDS DAY OBSERVATION
Tomorrow is World Wetlands Day. This year’s theme– Sustainable Urban Wetlands — is worth contemplating: currently half the world population lives in urban settings, but by 2050 that figure will be 66%. Wetlands not only grace our lives with beautiful and fascinating water birds, they perform critical functions that maintain a city’s liveability. For 2018, World Wetlands Day highlights five urban planning strategies which merit reflection and implementation, where appropriate.
Observed world over since 1997, World Wetlands Day commemorates the February 2, 1971 signing of the World Convention on Wetlands in Ramsar, Iran, along the shore of the Caspian Sea. Since 1998, Danone Group Evian Fund for Water has partnered with the Convention’s Secretariat to generate and distribute wetlands educational materials. Government agencies, NGOs, and citizen groups organize activities to raise public awareness of wetlands importance.
Wetlands provide homes to a startling variety of water birds: waterfowl like ducks, geese and swans; grebes, pelicans, and cormorants; ibises and spoonbills; egrets and herons; terns, gulls and shorebirds, or wading birds. In wetlands birds source drinking water and food, breed, nest and rear young, find shelter from weather and predators, and interact. Surface water, soil moisture and the duration and time of flooding determine the appropriateness wetlands for a particular bird species. The American Ornithologists’ Union estimates that of the approximate 1,900 bird species that breed in North America, about 138 are “wetland dependent,” meaning they require access to wetlands during their lifecycle.
Wetlands don’t just harbor birds and migratory flocks. This year’s three World Wetlands Day flyers emphasize three key aspects of wetlands: 1) wetlands are not wastelands but valuable urban resources; 2) investing in wetlands restoration and management can dramatically improve our quality of life; and 3) sustainable urban development integrates wetlands into cityscapes and urban lifestyle. The flyers are available for download and dissemination at http://www.worldwetlandsday.org.
Did you know wetlands absorb flood waters as if they were giant sponges? That wetlands filter drinking water as it seeps into aquifers, absorbing and degrading toxins like pesticides and industrial and human waste? That they protect rivers from harmful run-off, safeguarding the water supply? That they improve air quality in hot arid regions by humidifying and cooling? That as urban recreational areas, they demonstrably reduce stress in city dwellers? Finally, that they generate jobs through the fishing, the plants for weaving, foodstuffs or medicinals, and the tourism they support?
This year the Ramsar Secretariat promotes five wetlands management strategies. First, involve local residents in wetlands planning so they can provide valuable information about how wetlands contribute to their lifestyle and the local economy. For instance, along the Mekong River in Vietnam, local input led to waterway management which facilitated the return of larger fish to the area, which in turn bolstered the local economy.
Second, include wetlands management in urban planning, developing and enforcing building and disposal codes that protect the public interest in wetlands. In Accra, Ghana, which is located on a coastal plain, modern wetlands management enhanced wetlands moderation of flooding. The establishment of spacious greenways further enhanced wetlands ability to absorb excess water.
Third, restore wetlands. The London Wetland Centre, an urban wetland reclaimed from former Thames River reservoirs, is now home to over 180 bird species. The Centre adds to tourism, and thus also the local economy, by hosting over 170,000 visitors annually.
Fourth, reduce excessive water consumption and harmful runoff. Recently gauging its carbon and water footprints, Quito, Ecuador aims for a 68% reduction in the municipal water footprint over fifteen years through the promotion of eco-smart toilets, water-efficient appliances, and water recycling.
Finally, organize community wetlands cleanups. In the Los Angeles suburb of Huntington Beach, the Bolsa Chica Conservancy holds two public service days every month, removing an estimated 10 tons of trash and debris from the wetland site annually.
As your Good Citizen act of the week, consider handing out an informative flyer or two. As a good municipal citizen consider the role of wetlands in your own region and providing input about it to your local government.
Bird’s Eye View – January 15, 2018
On January 4, 2018, the Trump Administration issued a proposed rule for the expansion of offshore drilling in both Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The Audubon Society, in response, issued an Action Alert emphasizing that expanded offshore drilling endangers both shorebirds and seabirds as well as coastal communities whose economies depend on seasonal tourism
In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker, while in Prince William Sound, Alaska, crashed into Prince William Bligh Reef en route to California, spilling 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil over several days. This was the second largest oil spill in US history. Emergency workers used hot water to disperse the oily cover from the jagged cove-littered shoreline. However, hot water spelled disaster for microbial life in Prince William Sound.
The crude did not disperse and degrade as anticipated. In 2003 a University of North Carolina expedition concluded “species as diverse as sea otters, harlequin ducks and killer whales suffered large, long-term losses and that oiled mussel beds and other tidal shoreline habitats will take an estimated 30 years to recover.”
The wellhead of British Petroleum’s (BP’s) Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico blew out on April 20, 2010 and wasn’t successfully capped until September 19, five months later. This was also known as the Deepwater Horizon spill after the rig in question. Reportedly the capped wellhead still leaked as late as 2012.) The blowout killed eleven workers on the drilling platform and injured seventeen more. At an estimated 210 million US gallons, the spill was the largest in history.
The massive ensuing cleanup included the use of nearly 2 million gallons of oil dispersant, yet only 25% of the oil was recovered. The combination of the leak and use of toxic dispersant caused significant, long-lasting damage to marine and coastal biospheres. Two years later in 2012-13, cleanup workers removed 3000+ tons of crude residue from Louisiana’s beaches alone. 
A study published in Marine Ecology Progress Series and reported by Audubon estimates that over a million birds died during the acute phase of the Deepwater Horizon spill.  A similar study by the Center for Biological Diversity showed that marine mammals, fish, shellfish and reptiles all suffered similarly catastrophic short- and long-term consequences. 
The losses due to oil spills are, of course, not limited to birds and other wildlife. The Macondo spill, unlike the Exxon Valdez spill, demonstrated the extent to which oil spills can decimate local economies. A 2010 Oxford Economics study estimated that the loss to U.S. Gulf tourism was likely to exceed $22 billion over three years, nearly 25% of the anticipated tourism income for that period.  The ripple effect includes loss of jobs with resultant economic hardships throughout a region heavily dependent on tourism.
As more-easily-accessible sources of offshore oil are depleted, drillers must search for deposits farther from shore in deeper waters and farther beneath the sea floor. This requires the use of emergent and untested technologies. The Exxon Valdez spill shows that human error alone can precipitate devastating spills with long-term consequences. The vastly larger Macondo spill demonstrates that operating at the cutting edge of drilling technology adds an even less manageable variable.
At a time when we invest heavily in the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy – and at a time when species extinction has reached its highest rate in human history – we owe it to ourselves, our children, our common Earth to scrutinize carefully the cost/benefit ratio of offshore oil drilling. The future of Earth’s wildlife and humanity may depend on the choices we make today. If we choose wisely and prudently, we will weigh in the cost of such historic and potentially future ecological disasters.
 From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exxon_Valdez_oil_spill#Clean-up_and_environmental_impact: Williamson, David (December 18, 2003). “Exxon Valdez oil spill effects lasting far longer than expected, scientists say”. UNC/News. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
 From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill
 From Audubon: http://www.audubon.org/news/more-one-million-birds-died-during-deepwater-horizon-disaster: Martha Harbison (May 6, 2014)
 From the Center for Biological Diversity: http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/public_lands/energy/dirty_energy_development/oil_and_gas/gulf_oil_spill/a_deadly_toll.html (April, 2011)
 From NRDC Issue Paper 15-04-a: https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/gulfspill-impacts-summary-IP.pdf: (June, 2015)
January 1: AVIAN ZOONOSES: NOT BEAKS AT THE ZOO!
Zoonoses are not animal probosci you see at the zoo!
Zoonoses are animal diseases which can transmit across species to humans. Avian zoonoses are bird diseases that can pass from birds to humans– bird owners, their guests, and those working in bird-intensive environments, for instance, bird stores or the poultry industry. As always, an ounce of prevention never hurts!
Avian zoonoses can be viral, bacterial, fungal, chlamydial, and protozoal in nature. While rare, they disproportionately impact the very young, the aged, and the immuno-compromised. Some, like Salmonella, do not usually require treatment; others, like avian tuberculosis, which is antibiotic-resistant, do not have effective treatments but must be symptomatically managed. Still others, like psittacosis, can prove terminal yet are readily treated with antibiotics or other drugs if medical assistance is timely sought. Early detection is key in minimizing disease impact. Some zoonoses, like psittacosis, require laboratory testing of both bird and human blood samples for diagnosis. Thus both veterinary and medical consultations are necessary. Quarantine and containment of infected birds throughout the period of contagion and treatment are equally important.
Examples of each disease type are avian influenza (Type A virus, capable of triggering a pandemic), Salmonella (bacterial, the most common avian zoonosis), Cryptococcus (fungal, technically not zoonotic but avian-related) psittacosis (chlamydial), and Giardia (protozoal).
Typically US medical schools do not educate extensively on zoonoses: US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) constantly conducts educational outreach to physicians and, more recently, to bird owners. In December 2017, the CDC disseminated a newly published Compendium from the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) regarding psittacosis, “Parrot Fever” or avian chlamydiosis (AC; chlamydia psittaci), a bacterial-like infection, first described in 1892, which commonly originates from Psittacines (parakeets, cockatiels, parrots, conures, and macaws) and also from poultry and pigeons.
We encourage you to read and share the Compendium’s “Psittacosis and Avian Chlamydiosis Checklist for Owners of Infected Birds”, at http://www.nasphv.org/Documents/PsittacosisChecklistOwners2017.pdf Education overall improves our quality of life so share the information: approximately 40% of the Psittacine population may carry the pathogen and shed it when stressed. Infection can occur even on limited exposure, with the inhalation of dust from feces of infected birds. Nevertheless, outbreaks of psittacosis do not positively correlate with failed cleaning routines; if a person or bird contracts the pathogen, it is no reflection on the care of the bird.
Key takeaways are:
- ACQUIRE birds from reliable sources;
- PRACTICE GOOD HUSBANDRY to reduce stress in birds: maintain good nutrition and store food in closed containers in a different room; practice quarantine of new or ill birds; minimize stress.
- CLEAN and DISINFECT on a daily basis: moisten dried waste with a disinfectant solution prior to removal (effective disinfectants include bleach and water (½ cup bleach per gallon of water), 1% Lysol®; allow 5-10 minutes of contact time) and double bag all waste; wet mop the floor frequently with disinfectant solution (spray floor with disinfectant before sweeping. Do not use a vacuum cleaner or pressure washer).
- QUARANTINE ill birds from all other birds;
- FOLLOW TREATMENT PROTOCOLS; and
- Bird caretakers with flu-like symptoms should seek prompt medical care and inform their healthcare provider about their bird contact.
Humans contract psittacosis by inhaling dust from the feces of infected birds. An infected bird may exhibit ruffled feathers, green diarrhea, labored breath, and nasal or eye discharge and possibly depression, lethargy, and weight loss. The organism can remain infectious for months. In humans, the pathogen incubates over a period of five to fourteen days and then causes flu-like symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms. If you and your bird are both ill, see a vet and a doctor: testing is available for both and should be done. A multi-week course of antibiotics (doxycycline or tetracycline for humans, doxycycline or chlortetracycline for birds) provides effective treatment and may be started prior to the return of laboratory test results.
Appropriate handling of an infected bird throughout its period of contagion is essential to prevent further spread of the disease. The flyer of tips “Psittacosis and Avian Chlamydiosis Checklist for Owners of Infected Birds” includes such measures as regular hand-washing (lathering with an anti-bacterial soap for twenty seconds or more); thorough hand drying after washing; respiratory hygiene (covering your mouth when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them appropriately afterward); timely self-quarantine upon first experience of symptoms; avoidance of contact with infected others; not touching eyes, nose and mouth. Those working in an environment with infected birds or people should use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
So be a savvy bird-owner: take precautions against the spread of avian zoonoses and seek appropriate care for you and your bird when simultaneously you experience symptoms.
BIRD’S EYE VIEW: CLEAN GREEN HOLIDAY SEASON
Tis the Season — green your cleaning! If you have already, you may this year have a cabinet full of cleaners containing so-called essential oils–oils steam-distilled from plants–root, stem, bark, leaves, blossom or petal. Perhaps, like more industrial cleaners, you’ve wondered whether they’re bird-safe. The good news is that they are, with the possible important exception of those containing essential oil of Western Red Cedar.
‘Tis the Season — Deck the Halls with aromatic products — scented candles, potpourri, sachets, air fresheners, atomizers, etc. –containing essential oils of our favorite holiday scents!
Did you realize some avian vets use aromatherapy as an adjunct to their practice? That means positive health benefits of some therapeutic-grade (i.e., 100% pure) essential oils has some institutional recognition and acceptance: thus, scientific research on therapeutic- grade essential oils has had at least sufficient rigor, reliability, and reproducibility to persuade at least some portion of that scientific, professional community of its usefulness in maintaining avian health.
‘Tis the Season of Resolutions — consider educating yourself on household aromatherapy supportive of your bird’s health: read a book on avian aromatherapy, or join a FaceBook group or other forum on birds and essential oils. (The basic reference works for this article are Angela Nelson’s Aromatherapy for Parrots (2013) and Valerie Worwood’s Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy (1991)).
For starters, lavender, basil, orange, cinnamon, peppermint, white birch, tea- tree and thyme are several essential oils commonly added to today’s green cleaning products, in part due to their disinfectant properties (antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and/or anti-viral). Note, however, that essential oils used in cleaning products are rarely listed as “therapeutic grade” or its equivalent, “100% Pure”! In aromatherapy, therapeutic-grade essential oils of the above plants have medicinal uses; lower grade oils are not for quasi-pharmaceutic, aromatherapy regimens. Diluted, they lend cleansing action with pleasing scent and possible mild influence on mood.
Understandably, manufacturers maintain lower product cost profiles by employing essential oils of less than therapeutic grade in their house cleaning products. Thus, while a household cleaner with certain essential oils may eliminate bacteria in part by virtue of the essential oils’ properties, the cleaner doesn’t have an essential oil concentration likely to produce marked impact on health. In fact, aromatherapy specialists working with birds suggest the same test for household cleaners as that suggested by Sheri in her recent Behavior Issues article: if the products irritate you in any way, they will probably irritate your bird even more and may be unsafe for them.
Questions have been raised whether pine-, cedar– and citronella-based products are safe. Reported incidents may have depended more on impurities from the distillation process rather than the plant essences of the essential oils themselves. Remember, most products marketed as essential oils are not therapeutic–grade— they are diluted or “extended” with other products which could, in fact, harm a bird. Always check product ingredient lists, and never assume an essential oil is therapeutic grade. Particularly with regard to cedar, manufacturers have historically used thujone in processing Western Red Cedar essential oil; thujone is toxic to birds. Consequently, cedar cleaning products, where you cannot trace the original producer of the essential oil, should not be used.
By way of introduction, common essential oils used in cleaning products are listed below along with their common aromatherapy and medicinal uses, as well as, where known, the most common method of application:
Basil (Ocimum basilicum): Antibacterial, antiviral; anti-inflammatory; anithistamine; muscle relaxant. Allergies. Water-based diffusion, or oral administration; when diluted can be applied topically.
Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) : Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral. Avian Bornavirus. Use diffuser.
Lavender (Lavendula angustifolium, officinalis): Antiseptic, antifungal, analgesic, relaxant, anti-inflammatory. Uses: Cleaning; skin inflammation, feather destructive behavior, wound and burn healing; nervousness and anxiety. Can be diffused, or misted or used with a tent. One of the ingredients in the Daily Preening Spray (see below).
Lemon (Citrus limonum): Antiseptic, antibacterial, antiparasitic; antidepressant. Circulatory problems, anxiety, depression, psittacosis, bacterial infections. Often used with birds in a Daily Preening Spray (see below); can also be diffused and given orally.
Peppermint (Mentha piperata): Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral; anti-inflammatory. Arthritis, respiratory infections, crop stasis, fungal infections. Usually taken orally and not applied topically except to feet; use caution if used in diffuser or mister as can sting the eyes.
Tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia): Antiseptic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral. Fungal, bacterial, viral infections; cold sores, acne; burns; anti-inflammatory.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral. Infectious disease control; Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease, Avian Bornavirus, Psittacocus. Do NOT use in topical applications as it is a “hot” herb which can be painful to eyes and irritating to skin. Should only be orally used in small amounts in food.
White Birch (Betula alba): Disinfectant, antiseptic, antibactieral. Tonic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory (contains salicylic acid and methyl salicylate). Typically applied topically in dilute form as facial tonic.
Angela Nelson’s Daily Preening Spray
20 drops Lavender essential oil, 20 drops Orange essential oil, 20 drops Lemon essential oil; 4 ounces distilled water.
Mix the above in a 4-oz glass spray bottle. Shake before using. Use a couple sprays on bird to encourage and assist healthy preening. Note: the above recipe is for use with therapeutic-grade essential oils.
Some of the common seasonal essential oils are cinnamon [see above], clove, orange, ginger, vanilla, mace, pine and spruce.
Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata): Analgesic, antiseptic. Toothache, nausea, arthritis, infections.
Orange (Citrus aurantium): Antiseptic, sedative, tonic. Depression, anxiety, nervous conditions, muscle spasms.
Ginger ((Zingiber officinale): Anti-inflammatory. Muscular aches and pains; nausea, motion sickness.
Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia): Antioxidant, sedative, relaxant. Depression, anxiety, tension.
Mace (Myristika fragrans): Antibacterial, tonic. Bacterial infection, generalized weakness.
Pine (Pinus sylvestrus): Decongestant. Respiratory and chest infections, colds, sore throat.
Spruce (Picea): Antioxidant. Vitamin C. Scurvy.
So, now you;re ready to Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock with essential oils, and you want to know where to get them. The good news is there are many small companies which produce quality products sold online or in such health food and whole food stores as you may find in your area. I personally have frequently used the Plant Therapy, Radha Beauty, and Now (GNC) brands, which are readily available online. Just make sure you are buying 100% pure essential oil– “Accept no substitutes”!!! And Happy Holidays!!!!!
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Bird’s Eye View – from the Caribbean
During Hurricane Irma, Twitter’s @Iguacachic in Puerto Rico worked quickly with government conservation officials to move the 230 Iguaca (Puerto Rican) Parrots in the captive breeding program there to safety in a special hurricane-proof cement bastion. In last issue’s ThRoundup, a picture from @BirdsCaribbean (Tw) highlighted the peril that wild Caribbean parrots like the Sisserou on Dominica face from hurricanes. When we think of private and government conservation efforts, we too often consider only dangers human civilization and development pose for wildlife, but, as @Iguacachic demonstrated, measures can and must be taken to aid wild populations in the face of natural disasters too.
Photo credit – Tom MacKenzie of US FWS
For bird conservation, the best-conceived plans are those produced through coordination of cooperating organizations – private and governmental entities for bird conservation alongside those for natural resources, climate, land use, and cultural management. A comprehensive conservation program “requires a thoughtful strategy that incorporates conservation tools, restoration and adaptive management practices, monitoring procedures, and educational outreach – in essence, the integration of bird conservation into a variety of human activities and planning processes.” In short, a successful conservation program includes emergency preparedness for natural disasters.
The Puerto Rico parrot (Amazona vittata) stands an impressive twelve inches high and is the only wild parrot in the United States and its territories. First identified by Peter Boddaertt in 1783, the Taino Indians named the parrot “Iguaca” as an onomotapoeic tag for its call. Under the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (FSW) Conservation program in Puerto Rico (conducted in cooperation with Puerto Rico’s Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (DNER)) two captive-bred flocks of Iguaca enrich the two remaining free flocks in the El Yunque and Rio Abajo Commonwealth forests through reintroduction of captive-bred young into the wild. The agencies also maintain specialized, protected nesting structures in the forests to aid in the survival of wild young.
The Iguaca barely survived into this century, but a turnaround came when it was listed as an endangered species in 1967. Urban development — especially the construction of roads through the wilds — destroyed habitat, and the pet bird trade steadily diminished Iguaca numbers. ScientificAmerican reported that Iguaca numbers had dwindled to thirteen in 1975. As of 2014, however, approximately 100 captive-bred birds from the Fish & Wildlife/DNER breeding program had been reintroduced into the wild, where they are carefully tracked and monitored. The two captive breeding programs on the island house approximately 230 (FSW) and 175 (DNER) birds.
The special hurricane survival center on Puerto Rico was built in 2007, is constructed of sturdy cement, and has a back-up generator. Once the birds are moved to the center, humans must, of course, stay with them for care and feeding.
What about the Sisserou parrot, that 19-inch tall bird on the Lesser Antilles island of Dominica, the Amazon Imperialis? In 2012 it was estimated to have approximately 250-350 birds remaining. As in the US, conservation plans are made jointly between government agencies and private conservation societies. As it turns out, this species is the least successful in reproduction of all Amazon parrots, and, consequently, the captive breeding programs are even more critical to their survival. Because not all Dominica lands have been brought under wildlife management and protection, and because foreigners do still attempt to hunt the bird, education of the population has been critical to success with these birds.
The more facets of public interest involved in conservation, the healthier the program. That’s today’s takeaway!
 US Fish & Wildlife Service, Atlantic Coast Joint Venture, and Caribbean Landscape Conservation Cooperative, Avian Conservation Planning Priorities in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (2015), at http://acjv.org/documents/PRUSVI_plan.pdf
 Id. at p. 307.
Birds Eye View
How will you Identify Your Bird? To Microchip or Not
If your bird is larger than 100 grams, you may have wondered whether to microchip him or her for identification purposes. A usable technology for over twenty years, micro-chipping has undergone significant development: manufacturers have miniaturized the glass-encapsulated chip, and implantation no longer requires anaesthesia. Should you look up the procedure on YouTube, you would no doubt run across scary bird surgery videos showing implantation of older, larger microchip capsules, but the truth of the matter is that today chips are implanted with special injection devices: nothing more invasive than subcutaneous insertion of the chip is involved.
While breeders may employ micro-chipping as a means of tracking genetic and health information, the companion bird owner does so in lieu of banding, for purposes of identification in event of loss, mix-up, or theft. The “chip” itself is composed of a capacitor, RFID chip, antenna, and the biocompatible glass capsule. Emission of radio waves by a scanner in appropriate proximity activates the chip, which then transmits the identification number, typically fifteen digits long, encoded in the chip. It is not a GPS device and it does not admit of tracking an animal’s movement.
Micro-chipping your bird is a relatively safe and reliable alternative to maintaining the banding placed by the breeder for identification, provided the insertion is performed by a qualified avian veterinarian. Attempted owner insertions can be exceedingly dangerous to the bird.
Reasons to make the switch are several: 1) banding can catch on bird toys, cages, and household furniture and fabrics causing injury– from profuse bleeding even to fractures; 2) debris can build up under a band and cut off circulation to soft tissue, eventually causing gangrene; 3) if the band annoys your bird and he tugs or pecks at it, the band can become a hazard from the bird-induced damage; 4) the identifying numbers may wear off; and 5) the band can readily be removed by an unauthorized person.
Most of the world has followed one of two specific ISO standards. Some have a national database for registering the animals The ISO standard contains fifteen digits, including one digit to identify animal type and three digits to indicate either country code or manufacturer. Both standards specify a radio frequency of transmission of 134.2 kHz.
The United States, however, has not regulated animal microchipping for the most part, at either state or national level. There three frequencies are found: 125, 128 and 134.2 kHz. Thus, for US owners, there exists the possibility that the chip will not be read when attempted due to the scanner not using the frequency of the inserted microchip. However, it is not unsafe to insert more than one microchip and if you move somewhere where the ISO frequency is used, a second microchip can safely be inserted. Both 125 and 128 kHz microchipping systems are more prevalent in the US than the 134.2 kHz ISO standard.
While some countries have adopted national registers for animal chipping, other countries, like the United States allow a multitude of registry databases. In the US, the vet scans the microchip, and upon obtaining a reading, establishes ownership by consulting petmicrochiplookup.org, which identifies the database of registration.
Birds weighing in excess of about 5.5 kgs are usually microchipped at the back of the neck, while smaller birds receive the microchip subcutaneously in the left pectoral muscle. Several days of transient inflammation are common, but then fibrous tissue develops over the microchip, preventing it from migrating throughout the body.
After micro-chipping, the owner needs to register the microchip with a database, have the chip scanned annually to test for proper operation, and finally, maintain current information with the registering database.
When weighing whether replacement of your bird’s banding with a microchip is the right course, remember that no one can entirely escape-proof or theft-proof their home to protect their birds. And, a bird is not likely to find his way home again.
Birds Eye View:
Wind Energy & Policy
As renewable energy reaches new efficiency and extends to greater use, we must recognize that its various sources—like wind energy—may still pose environmental threats While the rise of wind energy has meant a growth in manufacturing jobs, a decrease in fossil fuel emissions and opportunities for more stabilized farm income in the form of rent, it also means an increased threat to wild bird and bat populations: not only do the turbines move at speeds upwards of 200 mph, their height (including blade tip) may range between approximately 475 and 640 feet and in the future yet higher (no data available on the lower reach of a blade in motion). The problem zone for birds extends from about 350 feet and upward. In the US, estimated bird-turbine collisions range between 33,000 and 573,000 per year; deaths from such collisions are estimated at between 134,000 and 327,000 per year, likely to rise to 1.4 million per year by 2030. Songbirds are most impacted.
In 2014, the UN Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species and Wild Animals established an Energy Task Force (ETF) for the UK, Europe, the Mideast and Africa. This forum brings together environmental, energy industry, and international finance organizations. As Ed Percy of Bird Life International summarizes, the ETF ultimately means “pragmatic solutions for sustainable energy development“ in these regions. The United States lacks such a mechanism for a regular airing and reconciling of renewable energy development issues of such diverse interest groups.
In 2016, the Obama Administration established a wind energy goal of 20% of US energy production by 2030 (a six-fold increase). Ironically, Red (Republican) states top the achievement charts in wind energy expansion as their geographic locations and agrarian economies provide fertile fields for growth (i.e., Iowa, Kansas, South Dakota, North Dakota and Oklahoma).
Politics of wind energy aside, most experts in the field recognize certain turbine planning guidelines that minimize threats to wild bird populations: 1) build structures away from bird habitats without fragmenting them; 2) build away from migratory routes, particularly nocturnal migratory routes; and, 3) implement “Shutdown on Demand” responsive to coordinated systems of radar, cameras and active observers. Importantly, soaring birds cannot easily alter their flight path or maneuver, and they fly lowest in daytime when searching visually for food.
Clearly, it would benefit both wild bird and human populations to have regular fora in which all concerned interest groups could air their issues and together develop pragmatic solutions, as done under the US Energy Task Force. While that organization plans to globalize, likely a significant portion of US interests would resist implementation of that model. Accordingly, American bird lovers may find their interests best served by playing their usual role in the domestic drama of supporting interest groups that engage in judicial, legislative and policy arenas.
It’s a Birb Thing!
Bird’s Eye View:
No, You Can’t Import a Parrot! Here’s Why:
So you’ve been nosing around on Instagram (where IS your loyalty?!), and you find a gorgeous parrot for sale in Indonesia that you’d love to buy. But you can’t. And you want to know why.
You can’t buy it because the United States has a law – the Wild Bird Conservation Act (WBCA), enacted in 1992 — which helps the world’s nations conserve wild birds by discouraging their circulation in international trade. More specifically, the WBCA, as administered by the US Fish & Wildlife Service, implements US commitments under the Convention on International Trade in Threatened and Endangered Species (CITES) by banning importation of all bird species in Appendices I-III. Virtually all parrots are included in the ban.
For qualified US breeders (and aviculturist clubs), there are a few exceptions, like the Captive Bird Program (CBP) which with considerable regulatory oversight permits the importation of qualified captive-bred stock for breeding with the purpose of conserving a population or establishing a new population. (See Link 1 below)
Under a second program, captive-bred birds listed at 50 CFR 15.33 (CFR is the Code of Federal Regulations) can be imported with the appropriate permits if it can be demonstrated that 1) they were not captured from the wild; 2) they are not exploited in international trade; and 3) they breed successfully in aviculture throughout the world. You can see this extensive list at Link 2, below.
International Travel with Your Pet Birb will not be Easy
So now, realizing that federal law impacts the international movement of captive-bred birds, you begin to wonder whether you could take your bird with you on a trip outside US borders and still return. That depends on the genus and species of your bird.
You must determine whether certain permits apply and obtain them before beginning your travels. You will also have to reenter through a Designated Port of Entry to have your bird examined for disease, and you will have to give 72-hour advance notice. IT’S NOT EASY!!! See Link 3 below.
Are the benefits of the complex regulatory scheme worth the cost? That’s a difficult question which no doubt gets different answers when asked in different quarters. We can point to successful wildlife conservation programs in other countries which have benefited from a ban on US importation of their species of bird. Certainly, we benefit from the inspection of birds for disease when they enter (or reenter) the US. But that doesn’t change the fact that, for the owner of a pet bird, the requirements for travelling internationally with your bird are onerous.
Millet Is Not Just for the Birds!
Millet is not just for the birbs! An important dietary staple in the history of civilization, millet can also be a healthful part of your diet which you share with your birbs. Nutty and fragrant, it can complement many dishes, whether as couscous (cracked millet) or hulled, cooked whole grain. My mother would add whole-grain cooked millet to her bread dough. No other dish at our house occasioned more anticipation than that millet bread – its aroma as it baked wafted up to our bedrooms, keeping us awake; but Mom would let us—however late at night—descend to the kitchen to consume great slabs of the bread, slathered in butter, steaming hot out of the oven.
A class of small-seeded grasses, millet has around 6,000 varieties. The millet spray you give your birb is foxtail, or finger, millet; panicum millaceum, or provo millet, is the predominant US millet crop, used for fodder and bird feed; pearl milllet, pennisitum glaucum, is the most popular millet for human consumption.
Cultivated in East Asia as early as 10,000 years ago, millet has been the staple grain of human populations in both Asia and Africa. Gluten-free, millet is the only grain which cooked has a basic pH and so is easy on the stomach. Nutty and inordinately high in B vitamins, millet is also a good source of manganese and magnesium. Compared to wheat, millet has slightly less protein (11%) but nearly three times more fiber. Millet is higher in fat than wheat, which is why it should not comprise more than ten percent of your birb’s diet (e.g., approximately one teaspoon per day for a parakeet).
Ninety-seven percent of world millet production takes place in developing countries. Millet can grow in virtually any soil or climate. Maturing to harvest in between 45 and 65 days, this fast-growing grass also figures prominently as both cash and emergency crop, especially after the failure of another crop due to such events as hail or drought. Most US production of provo millet occurs in Colorado, Nebraska and South Dakota.
Hulled whole millet is generally available in the natural foods aisle of the grocery store. However, our neighborhood Harris Teeter only carries millet flour, popularly used in gluten-free baking. We get whole millet from Amazon.com, which carries several brands.
Cooking millet is easy! Couscous has a shorter preparation time than pasta. I have put whole grain millet in the rice cooker; I have also cooked it up on the stove. It takes the same proportion of water to grain as brown rice or steel – cut oatmeal: 1 cup grain to 2.5 cups water. A favorite dish is mixed vegetables in a sauce over millet. The birbs recognize the aroma right away when I walk into the room. I share it with them in the hope that it helps them bond with me.
It’s a Birb Thing!
Its A Birb Thing!
Bird’s Eye View: Replacing the Clean Power Plan
[Birds Eye View seeks to start a conversation. It does so by drawing a line in the sand, articulating a reasoned argument. Its purpose is to precipitate reflection and measured discourse: it is a rhetorical device to engage you–what stone has the author left un-turned??!! Write us back in a Letter to the Editor submitted to Birb0bserver@gmail.com.]
Canary in the Coal Mine
Have you had a canary in the coal mine experience?
I have. I was living in the basement apartment of a Silver Spring, Maryland two-story. The apartment had gas utilities and an installed gas-burning space heater in the bedroom. One day Little Boy Blue and Miss Teal, my two parakeets, stopped singing. In fact, they seemed poorly. And I felt off, too. I insisted the landlord call the gas company to check for leaks. In fact, the company discovered a leak in the installed space heater. I’m grateful to the birds because I wouldn’t have thought to test air quality without them.
Typically, airborne pollutants impact our birb companions—and wild birds—before we notice their impact on us. Wild birds are canaries in the coal mine when it comes to the environment’s air quality. In the United States, the federal government protects air quality under the authority of the Clean Air Act and its associated rules and regulations.
The Obama administration promulgated one rule in particular –the Clean Power Plan — regulating power-plant emissions. Yesterday, September 15 The Hill news organization reported that Trump Administration officials may issue a proposed rule to replace, not just repeal, the Obama Era rule either this month or next month. Generally the Trump Administration has questioned whether humans do in fact contribute to global warming and climate change, and so has sought to implement more industry-friendly rules than the Obama Administration, The Hill suggests the Trump Administration will take a more middle-of-the-road position with regard to power-plant emissions in this forthcoming Proposed Rule
This shift in direction is a positive development for all of us, including wild birds and companion birbs alike. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) found that over 92% of the earth’s human inhabitants live in air polluted beyond acceptable safety levels. Rest assured, if it’s not safe for us, it’s not safe for our birbs with their smaller, more sensitive lungs!
Air emissions impact birds not only directly in the air they breathe, but also in a grand geo-climatic cycle: as acid rain, the pollutants precipitate out into ground water and the food chain, impacting everything from fertility to immunity.
Let’s keep an eye out for the forthcoming rule, and let’s remember that as members of the public we can provide feedback to the Government through the regulatory comment period through Comments on the appropriately posted Proposed Rule.
Many of you in the community are likely highly knowledgeable on specific matters of air quality, the environment and their impact on birds. We hope you will contribute Letters to the Editor to help educate those of us with lesser knowledge.